Mysterious 4,000-year-old grave reveals boy and girl buried face to face
In a cemetery dating back about 4000 years, in Kazakhstan, the bodies of a young man and women were discovered buried face to face, probably in their twenties. You might be in a romantic connection they were a couple.
The bodies of a man and woman who died 4,000 years ago have been found buried face-to-face in a grave in Kazakhstan.
Archaeologists discovered the burial in an ancient cemetery that has remains of humans and horses, Kazakhstan archaeologists said in a Kazakh-language statement.
The man and woman were buried with a variety of grave goods that includes jewelry (some of which is gold), knives, ceramics, and beads. The remains of horses were also found near the burial.
While some media reports claim that the archaeologists also found the burial of a priestess nearby, the archaeologists made no mention of this in their statement.
While the statement says that the pair is “young” it doesn’t give an age range.
It’s not clear what killed the man and woman or their exact relationship to each other, including whether they were romantically involved.
The rich burial goods suggest that the man and woman came from wealthy families, archaeologists said in their statement.
Archaeological remains found at other sites in Kazakhstan suggest that the pair lived at a time when fighting and conflicts occurred frequently in the region, archaeologists also said.
Excavation of the cemetery and analysis of the remains are ongoing. The archaeological team is led by Igor Kukushkin, an archaeology professor at Saryarka Archaeological Institute at Karaganda State University in Kazakhstan. Live Science was unable to reach Kukushkin at the time this story was published.
Numerous archaeological remains have been uncovered in Kazakhstan. In 2016, a team led by Kukushkin found the remains of a 3,000-year-old, pyramid-shaped mausoleum.
In 2014, a different team of archaeologists identified 50 geoglyphs with various shapes and sizes, including a massive swastika, that appear to date as far back as 2,800 years.
4,000-Year-Old Ancient Babylonian Tablet is Oldest Customer Service Complaint Ever Discovered
People lived, worked and spent time in old Mesopotamia, just as we live with our families today. They also had daily issues, and clay tablets discovered at the site of the ancient city of Ur, today Tell el-Muqayyar in southern Iraq, show some of them.
Nanni, probably a man of business or a craftsman, wrote a letter to Ea-Nasir about four thousand years ago, according to Quartz, complaining that the ingots he bought were of lower quality and that Ea-Nassir had treated him poorly by not reimbursing his cash.
To collect his cash in individual Nanni would have had to cross enemy land. The following was written by him:
“How have you treated me for that copper? You have withheld my money bag from me in enemy territory; it is now up to you to restore (my money) to me in full.
Take cognizance that (from now on) I will not accept here any copper from you that is not of fine quality. I shall (from now on) select and take the ingots individually in my own yard, and I shall exercise against you my right of rejection because you have treated me with contempt.”
The tablets were inscribed in cuneiform, one of the first written languages in the Middle East. According to Britannica.com, Europeans first learned of ancient writings that were not in languages such as the Arabic, Egyptian, Hebrew or Greek usually found on tablets in 1602.
In 1700, Thomas Hyde, a British Professor of Arabic, Regius chair of Hebrew, and author of Historia religion is veterum Persarum (The History of the Religion of Ancient Persia), called the new language “cuneiform.”
It took until the 19th century to decipher cuneiform, and the practice still goes on in the form of “Assyriology” so named because the earliest cuneiform writing to be found came from Nineveh, the largest city of the ancient Assyrian empire.
The area of Mesopotamia was located in modern-day Iraq, eastern Syria, and southeast Turkey, in the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It lasted until about the 7th century AD, approximately three thousand years, and their civilization affected the entire world.
Mathematics, the division of time into sections, astronomy, architecture, and astrology were practiced by the Mesopotamians at this time, as was a basic legal system.
Literature flourished with historical tales, myths of kings and queens, and fantastic animals, birds, and fish. Art and sculpture grew during the Mesopotamian years starting with simple terracotta statues and gradual improvement to finely detailed carvings.
Another set of tablets written in cuneiform from old Babylon was found in 1976 by Jacobus van Dijk, Professor Emeritus of Archeology at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.
While the actual tablet is now missing, van Dijk made a copy of the tablet, with a short translation. Because of the unpolished style of writing, he assumed the message was written by a student.
The writings were studied by Michael P. Streck, Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Studies and Head of the Institute of Ancient Near Eastern Studies at the University of Leipzig in Germany, and Nathan Wasserman, Professor of Assyriology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
They call the tablets “wisdom literature” due to the riddles and metaphors. They could be compared to Benjamin Franklin’s Silence Dogood essays published in his own newspaper, the New-England Courant in 1722.
The tablets were made from soft clay bricks and either written or stamped characters were added before the clay was completely dry. They were used for letters, proclamations, stories and just about everything we currently put on paper.
Streck and Wasserman reported that there are political jokes, riddles, and toilet humor, just like today. They even found the earliest form of “yo’ mama” jokes written on the tablet. It goes to show that people have always been much the same anytime and anywhere.
The Perfectly Preserved 2,000-yr-old Chinese Sword without a Single Trace of Rust
A completely preserved bronze sword from the fifth century BC is exhibited among the permanent collections in the Hubei Provincial Museum, situated in Hubei Province in eastern central China.
During an archeological excavation at the Zhang River Reservoir in Jingzhou in 1965, the sword was found.
Nearly 50 graves have been discovered, yielding more than 2,000 artifacts, including Goujian’s Sword.
The weapon is 22 inches long with a repeating dark-colored pattern of rhombi engraved into the blade and is inlaid with turquoise.
Embellished over the pattern are Chinese characters that, according to My Modern Met, translate to “King of Yue” and “made this sword for [his] personal use.” Most historians believe the sword belonged to Goujian, the King of the Chu State during the Zhou dynasty.
The sheath is made of lacquered wood and was found to be virtually airtight, which was probably a major factor in keeping the blade untarnished in the 2,000 years it lay in the damp environment of the king’s tomb.
The grip is bound with silk, and the pommel is designed with eleven circles. The blade is made mostly of copper and tin and is as razor-sharp as it was when the king held it in his hands.
The Epoch Times tells the story of Goujian, the owner of the sword. During the early reign of Goujian in the fifth century BC, the State of Yue was in a precarious position.
A neighboring state, Wu, had conquered the Chu Kingdom and focused its sights on Yue. Goujian had just inherited the throne, and the State was in disarray.
Helü, the King of Chu and Wu, wasted no time in attacking Goujian’s army which was led by Goujian himself. Although he was outnumbered and outgunned, Goujian succeeded in cornering Helü, and a duel was set. Goujian’s youth gave him an advantage and Helü was killed as his troops retreated.
Helü’s son, Fuchai, then became King of Wu, and he could never forgive Goujian for the death of his father. After rebuilding his army, he attacked the Yue State. Unable to work his way out of this fight, Goujian surrendered.
He, his wife, and his right-hand man, Fan Li, were enslaved by Fuchai, and one of Fuchai’s advisors, Wen Zhong, took over the ruling position of Yue. During the three years of Goujian’s captivity, Fuchai’s attitude of self-importance grew exponentially.
He was convinced he had the former King of Yue completely under his thumb and ignored his advisors when they cautioned him against overconfidence. Fuchai was so convinced of Goujian’s loyalty, he freed the former king, his wife, and Fan Li and allowed them to return home.
While once again ruling, Goujian and his wife joined the commoners working in the fields — not only to stay below Fuchai’s radar but also to better understand the plight of the peasants while Fan Li prepared the ultimate revenge.
Taxes would not be raised, and rules were set to maximize the birth rate which drew favor from the peasants. Goujian allowed Fuchai to get the upper hand on trade negotiations and freely sent his most beautiful women to be concubines of the Wu ministry.
Fan Li trained women in the art of entertainment and pleasing men. One such concubine, Xi Shi, was trained especially for Fuchai. He was so besotted with her, he forgot his royal duties and spent all of his time and money on construction projects to benefit her.
The rest of Fuchai’s cabinet were equally distracted by concubines sent by Fan Li, and Wu spiraled into ruin. A drought only made things worse. When Fuchai was forced to request grain from Goujian, he was given grain soaked in boiling water which was suitable for eating but unable to germinate if planted.
Goujian had maneuvered Fuchai into exactly the position he needed him to be, and his army soon attacked. As the losing king, Fuchai was humiliated and committed suicide.
Unfortunately, Goujian’s years of captivity had affected him negatively and he soon turned against his own advisors. As top officials were being executed, Fan Li escaped, reportedly taking Xi Shi with him.
Goujian died in about 465 BC and was succeeded by his son Luying. The Kingdom of Yue was never the same and was later conquered by the Kingdom of Chu along with the Kingdom of Wu — putting everything back in its place.
9,000-Year-Old City Just Unearthed Near Jerusalem Is A ‘Game Changer’ For Archaeologists.
An archeologist excavation project in Motza near Jerusalem has uncovered an extensive 9,000-year-old settlement called “a game-changer.” The site was saved when builders surveyed it before their planned construction of a highway, according to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
The Neolithic settlement predates Britain’s Stonehenge monument, during which time “more and more” human populations transitioned from continuous migration to more permanent communities.
Co-director of the Motza excavations, Jacob Vardi, claimed the knowledge gathered from this discovery gives archaeologists their “Big Bang” moment regarding this particular stage of human history.
“It’s a game-changer, a site that will drastically shift what we know about the Neolithic era,” said Vardi. The research team estimated a population between 2,000 and 3,000 people once lived in the settlement — “an order of magnitude that parallels a present-day city,” the team said.
Spanning dozens of acres, the town sits about three miles northwest of the center of Jerusalem. According to The Times Of Israel, most experts thought the area was uninhabited during this particular prehistoric period — until just recently.
“So far, it was believed that the Judea area was empty and that sites of that size existed only on the other bank of the Jordan river, or in the Northern Levant,” a joint statement by Vardi and archaeologist Hamoudi Khalaily read.
“Instead of an uninhabited area from that period, we have found a complex site, where varied economic means of subsistence existed, and all these only several dozens of centimeters below the surface.”
For Lauren Davis, an archaeologist with the Israel Antiquities Authority, the site is a wealth of contextual data — and one that will reap priceless rewards yet unknown.
“This is most probably the largest excavation of this time period in the Middle East, which will allow the research to advance leaps and bounds ahead of where we are today, just by the amount of material that we are able to save and preserve from this site,” she said.
In terms of the actual remnants and excavated artifacts produced by the dig, the team exposed sizable buildings, alleys, burial plots, and evidence of fairly sophisticated urban planning. The team also found storage sheds that held miraculously well-preserved lentil seeds and legumes.
“This finding is evidence of intensive practice of agriculture,” the Israel Antiquities Authority said.
Thousands of arrowheads, a collection of flint tools, axes, sickle blades, and knives were discovered at Motza, as well. Alongside evidence of domesticated animals, the uncovered artifacts indicated a people in transition — teetering between hunter-gatherer and agricultural lifestyles.
“Animal bones found on the site show that the settlement’s residents became increasingly specialized in sheep-keeping, while the use of hunting for survival gradually decreased,” the organization said.
The ancient people of Motza also kept domesticated goats, which researchers theorized were traded with people in Turkey, Jordan, and around the Red Sea. Signs of cow and pig farming were found, too, while the animal remains showed these people hunted gazelle, deer, wolves, and foxes.
The unexpectedly large buildings uncovered in this dig included areas for rituals, with some even containing plaster floors. The alleyways between structures denoted an advanced level of city design for the time, which was another welcome surprise for the excavation team.
As might be expected in the discovery of an ancient community’s settlement, evidence of human burials — replete with offerings postulated to accompany the dead into the afterlife — were found, as well. Some of these goods, like obsidian beads, came from Turkey, while others, like some seashells, came from the Red Sea many miles away.
“Based on the data that we have and from the fauna, we have a pretty good notion that the people at the site were farmers and they were specialists in what they did,” said Vardi, adding that it was clear why this area was so desirable.
The Motza site — which is about 30 to 40 hectares big, or one-tenth of a square mile — is near a large spring of freshwater, with a few smaller ones scattered about nearby.
As it stands, the excavation project is far from finished. The team plans on publishing numerous research papers and articles for the public on its website, while some of the priceless artifacts are installed in yet-to-be identified museums.
In other words, at some point, you’ll hopefully be able to see the 9,000-year-old things you’ve just read about for yourself.