Living With Dead Bodies for Weeks—Or Years—Is Tradition

Living With Dead Bodies for Weeks—Or Years—Is Tradition

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Living With Dead Bodies for Weeks—Or Years—Is Tradition

Talking, or even thinking about the subject may be considered taboo for many of us, but for the Toraja, death is a lifelong preoccupation.

Death is a long and sacred process for the people who live in South Sulawesi, one of the 17,508 islands of Indonesia just east of Borneo. Death does not come until their bodies have left home.

The Sulawesi Toraja has for several years kept their corpses in their households, thinking that “a dead person still at home is not dead.”

National Geographic documented the culture’s sacred tradition in a video, revealing their lavish celebrations for the dead. When a loved one passes away, the family members treat the body as if the person were still alive.

They describe death as prolonged sleep. Torajans take the utmost care of the body, cleaning it and brushing off the dirt, changing its clothes, praying with it, feeding it, and leaving the lights on in the evening.

“We are not afraid of the dead body because our love for our ancestors is much greater than our fear,” a relative of one of the deceased says.

At the Balle graveyard, in Rindigallo, Ne Duma Tata, 90, waits to return his wife’s body to the family mausoleum after the ma’nene ritual. Ludia Rante Bua died in 2010, aged about 70. Her body (far right) stands next to that of her sister.
Deceased family members have had their bodies cleaned and redressed during ma’nene. The sight of a foreigner at the rituals causes little concern. Some participants even state it is an honour to see a blue – Westerner – during ma’nene, as it contributes to a clan’s prestige.

Researchers didn’t know when these death practices began until carbon dating of wooden coffin fragments revealed that it dates back at least as far as the ninth century A.D., according to an accompanying article in National Geographic.

Yacob Kakke, an expert of the Torajan culture, explains that lower-class citizens tend to the bodies for only a few weeks, while the middle class keep them for several months and the upper class for a few years. Besides wanting to keep their loved ones near, they also want to push off funerals so as many relatives as possible can attend.

A Torajan funeral, usually held in August, is a massive celebration. There’s music, a feast of pork, vegetable, and rice for hundreds of gathered family and friends, and an ornate wooden bier called Duba duba to transport the body.

Yuanita snaps a selfie with the body of her relative Allo Pongsitammu, who died about 20 years ago. The ma’nene ritual is an opportunity for the young to meet some ancestors for the first time.

In Sulawesi, buffalo are sacred creatures used for currency and vehicles in the afterlife. The higher number and best quality buffalo a family can acquire for a funeral the better. 

National Geographic describes these funerals as great fun:

“A funeral is a wedding, a bar mitzvah, and a family reunion all in one, easily outstripping the conviviality of Irish wakes.

Lavish funerals are a chance to meet and mingle, to eat and drink well, to enjoy games and entertainment—even to network for jobs or eye prospective mates.”

The body of Grandpa Ne Pua, who died aged 85 and was laid to rest in his family’s mausoleum in Rindigallo, is about to be prepared for the ma’nene ritual. After cleaning, the body will be redressed in fresh clothes and given a “sunbath”.

Like many cultural customs, paying respect to ancestors doesn’t end at the burial for Torajans.

Families hold second funerals called ma’nene’ every few years where they clean the tombs, change the deceased’s outfit with fresh clothes, and provide snacks and cigarettes.

There are nearly half a million Torajans that live in the highlands of Sulawesi.

About 90 percent practice Christianity, as recitations from the Bible are read throughout the ceremonial process, but they also remain true to their traditional religion Aluk to Dolo or Way of the Ancestors.

“So maybe for the world, this is something unusual,” Pieter Sambara said, a relative of the deceased. “However, this is our culture. This is our uniqueness.”

While some in the western world may find this Torajan tradition as strange or even morbid, it’s a core piece of the culture’s heritage and an important part of celebrating both life and death.


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